Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are three of the principal protozoo groups which cause gastro-intestinal infections.
Cryptosporidiosis is a protozoal infection caused by Cryptosporidium parvum in human. Typically, is an acute short-term infection but can become severe and non-resolving in children and immunocompromised individuals such as aids patients. It is may also be asymptomatic. In tropical developing countries, the parasite is often endemic and causes diarrhoea epidemics among children. With immunocompetent patients, the disease manifests itself as self-healing gastroenteritis.
Giardiasis in human is caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia. This organism is implicated in 25% of the cases of gastrointestinal disease and may be present asymptomatically. Giardia lamblia has become an important cause of chronic diarrhoea, particularly with the problems in travel medicine.
Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite responsible for the dysentery and amebiasis. It is the third leading cause of morbidity and mortality due to parasitic disease in humans after malaria and schistosomiasis, and is estimated to be responsible for between 50,000 and 100,000 deaths every year. The disease may manifest itself as an acute, chronic or as an asymptomatic infection.
Traditionally, diagnosis is made by microscopic examination and require experienced technician. So it is suitable to develop an alternative method, quick and simply to use that does not require the presence of intact organisms (cysts or trophozoites) in the stool sample and detects the three different parasites in a simple measure.